The leaders of the Umayyad state between loyalty and rebellion, a historical study


  • Lec. Hussain Muhammad Ali, Assist. Lec. Mithaq Obeis Hussain


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The Umayyad state was established as a result of the efforts of its founder, Muawiyah bin Abi Sufyan, who was the ruler of the Levant since the era of Caliph Omar bin Al-Khattab when he assumed it for about seven years and remained in it during the caliphate of Othman bin Affan for about twelve more years. From the year 41 AH (662 AD) to 132 AH (650 AD), the Umayyad rule lasted for nearly 91 years, during which it witnessed a great geographical expansion and was the capital of the state in the city of Damascus. France in the west and managed to conquer Africa, Morocco, Andalusia, southern Gaul, Sindh and Transoxiana.