Segment and Super-Segment Properties of Different System Languages (Russian, Kazakh)


  • Dzhusupova Unglasin Talibbaevna


The article is devoted to the study of segmental and super segmental units of the language on the material of the Russian and Kazakh languages, to identify similarities and differences in their functions in the speech stream. The allocation of a phoneme (or a synharmophoneme), words, phrases, sentences in different system languages ​​have differences. They, first of all, lie in their functions in the flow of speech, accompanied by super-segment properties of each language, which are heterogeneous and ambiguous. At the level of the word in Russian, the prosodic dominant is verbal stress, in Kazakh (and other Turkic languages) it is vowel harmony. These are different super segmental units (properties) of languages. In Russian, verbal stress of different places and unfixed falls on one syllable of a word and contributes to the generation of a qualitative and quantitative reduction of vowels in an unstressed position. Synharmonism covers the whole word, no matter how polysyllabic it is. The type of vowel harmony of the whole word completely depends on the type of vowel harmony of the root of the word: vowel sound root of the word plus vowel affixes in one of the four vowel types; synharmosoft root of the word plus synharmosoft affixes in one of the four synharmotypes. In the scientific literature, the ambiguity in the definition of super segmental units (stress and vowel harmony) is considered. At the same time, the general, unanimously accepted position is put at the forefront, that both verbal stress and vowel harmony are the “cementing means” of the word of these languages.

The prosodic properties of the word - verbal stress and vowel harmony, have in common as super segmental units, but perform their functions in different ways. This difference lies in the very nature of the Russian language as Slavic, and the Kazakh language as Turkic. In the course of the work, methods of comparative, linguistic description, opposition of minimal pairs, etc. were used. All this made it possible to identify nuances that contributed to the increase in the scientific objectivity of the results obtained.