Hofstede Model: Relevance and Implication to English Language Learning and Teaching in Pakistani Classrooms


  • Muhammad Mooneeb Ali, Dr Ajmal Gulzar, Amna Shahid


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The present review deals with critical evaluation of Hofstede’s model. Through the critical evaluation, the relevance and implication of Hofstede’s model to English language learning and teaching in Pakistan has been commented. This review presents both positive and negative criticism on Hofstede’s dimension to determine it suitable for ELL and ELT in Pakistani classrooms. Hofstede’s dimension of uncertainty avoidance has been selected in order to check its implementation in Pakistani classrooms. The list of linguistic indicators of uncertainty avoidance including hedges and emphatic expressions (Hyland, 1998; Koutsantoni, 2005) has been selected as the framework. To analyze the level of uncertainty avoidance by the contents of this framework, 30 research theses of native English writers and 30 research theses of non-native English writers have been downloaded from reliable websites. The collected data is converted into corpus and has been processed through Antconc. The frequency drawn by Antconc shows similarities and differences of hedges and emphatic expressions in both corpora comparatively. The results indicate that native English writers are more emphatic and less tentative. They use fewer hedges according to their dire requirements while non-native English writers use more hedges and are more tentative. They are less confident to emphasize their writings and expressions. This research guides non-native English writers or students in Pakistani classrooms how they can increase the level of certainty of their writings